Zedler, Beatrice (1995). “Mary Whiton Calkins.” In M.E. Waithe (Ed.),

Contributions to the Field of Psychology
Although Mary Whiton Calkins was never officially recognized by Harvard University officials for her doctorate work, she made important contributions during her experiments on association and memory. Calkins conducted several experiments using variations of numbers and colors in which she investigated the effects of frequency, primacy, and vividness on associative memory. She concluded from her research that frequency was by far the most important factor in effective memory association (Goodwin, 2008). These techniques are now referred to as the paired-associate techniques. In 1891Calkins established a psychology laboratory at Wellesley while she was instructing a psychology course in the Philosophy Department. Following in the footsteps of one of her primary mentors, William James, Calkins turned to philosophy again in the latter part of her career becoming an Associate Professor of Psychology and Philosophy at Wellesley in 1895. Calkins published many of her papers from her work on association in Munsterberg's lab during this period and her first book, An Introduction to Psychology, was published in 1901 (Furumoto, 1980).

Mary Whiton Calkins (1863 - 1930),

PPT – Mary Whiton Calkins PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3b2aa7-YWZkO

Mary Whiton Calkins (1863 - 1930),

The eldest of five children born to Reverend Wolcott Calkins, a strong-willed, intellectually gifted evangelical minister, and Charlotte Grosvenor Whiton, a daughter of an established New England Puritan family, Mary Whiton Calkins grew up in a close-knit family that valued education. As her mother's mental and physical health began to deteriorate, Calkins took on increased responsibilities for her younger siblings as well as her mother.

Mary Whiton Calkins - Webster University

Conclusion
In a time when women were thought to be mentally inferior to men, Mary Whiton Calkins proved that this sexist conception was far from the truth. Because of her father's intense devotion to the proper education of his children, Mary was educated far beyond the standard of the time, thus proving that if given the opportunity women can achieve equal academic levels to men. Mary was also fortunate in being accepted by great minds like William James, Josiah Royce, and Hugo Munsterberg who treated her as an equal and championed her applications for graduate work.
Harvard University never officially granted Mary Whiton Calkins her PhD. Radcliffe, the women's version of Harvard offered to award her one, but she would not have it from any other school than the one at which she had earned it, explaining to the Dean of Radcliffe that doing so would only allow Harvard to continue to be discriminatory toward women (Furumoto, 1980). This decline to accept the PhD from Radcliffe is further of example of Mary Whiton Calkins' strong moral resolve.
Despite having been denied her PhD from Harvard, Calkins' professional and scholarly achievements led to several honors such as being ranked 12th on a list of the 50 leading psychologists in 1903, a Doctor of Letters degree from Columbia University in 1909, and a Doctor of Laws degree from Smith College in 1910. Mary Whiton Calkins was elected the first female president of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1905 and in 1918 was elected as the first female president of the American Philosophical Association.
It has been said that a woman has to work twice as hard to progress half as far as a man in modern society. In the time of Mary Whiton Calkins a woman had to work three times as hard, be twice as smart, and more brave and outspoken than any other woman around her. Mary did far more for the world than just contribute to the fields of philosophy and psychology, she paved the way for future female students, who will continue to disprove the old theories of the intellectual inferiority of women.

Feminist antecedents?: Mary Whiton Calkins' project for a scientific psychology
Feminist antecedents?: Mary Whiton Calkins' project for a scientific psychology

Mary Whiton Calkins, APA’s first woman president

Mary Whiton Calkins, whom is best known for two things: becoming the first woman president of the American Psychological Association and being denied her doctorate from Harvard. However, these two aspects only make up a small portion of what she accomplished in her life. Her entire life was dedicated to her work, especially the development of her "psychology of selves." She founded an early psychology laboratory and invented the paired-associate technique. She passionately delved into the new field of Psychology but also was highly active in the field of Philosophy. She was not deterred by being a woman and used her struggles to gain a voice to speak out against women's oppression.

Mary Whiton Calkins (1915)

Mary Whiton Calkins was definitely a woman before her time

The eldest of five children born to Reverend Wolcott Calkins, a strong-willed, intellectually gifted evangelical minister, and Charlotte Grosvenor Whiton, a daughter of an established New England Puritan family, Mary Whiton Calkins grew up in a close-knit family that valued education. As her mother's mental and physical health began to deteriorate, Calkins took on increased responsibilities for her younger siblings as well as her mother.

To this day Harvard has not issued any degree in honor of Mary Whiton Calkins and feels that there is

Mary Whiton Calkins - Term Paper - 1472 Words

A pioneer in her field, Mary Whiton Calkins was among the first generation of women to enter psychology. Because of the many obstacles that she overcame throughout her education and career, her accomplishments and breakthroughs undoubtedly gave hope to all women struggling for equality. While graduate education was unheard of for women before 1900, Calkins fought for access to Harvard1s seminars and laboratories. Her gender prevented her from receiving her Ph.D., however, despite the fact that she was a highly regarded doctoral student. With her tenacious attitude, she moved on and opened one of the first psychological laboratories in the United States at Wellesley College in 1891. She kept her faculty position at Wellesley until her retirement forty years later. Her numerous contributions to society included the invention of the paired-associate technique for studying memory, groundbreaking research on dreams, and the development of a form of self-psychology. Furthermore, she became the first female president of both the American Psychological Association and the American Philosophical Association.